7.00 Roma Follower and Challenger Acts

7.00 Roma Follower and Challenger Acts


Cesar Augustus

Birth of Jesus

Prophet Jesus


Death of Jesus
last supper

Pontius Piilatus

Jewish High Priests

Judea Kings





Penecost First Hebrew Christian Community founded not by the Christ but holy spirit

Cornelius first Roma or gentile Christian



Paul being Jew to the Jews and gentile to the gentiles

Jerusalem bishops

33 to 64/67 Petrus

67 to 76 Linus

79 to 90 Anakletos

Apostolic Letters



Maria first Catholic?

Roma downfall

state religion

Bishops of Babylonia City

Babylonia desertification
Babylonia Revival

Bishops of Roma


92 to 101 Klemens 1
99 to 107 Evaristos
107 to 116 Alexander 1
116 to 125 Sixtus or Xystus 1
125 to 136/138 Telesphorus
136/138 to 140/142 Hyginus
140/142 to 154/155 Pius 1
154/155 to 166 Anicetos
166 to 174 Soter
174 to 189 Eleutherus
189 to 198/199 Victor 1
199 to 217 Zephyrinus
217 to 222 Kalixt 1
217 to 235 Hippolyt gegen papst? obwohl länger im amt?
222 to 230 Urban 1
230 to 235 Pontianus
235 to 236 Anteros
236 to 250 Fabianos
251 to 253 Cornelius
251 to 258 Novatian gegen papst? obwohl länger im amt?
253 to 254 Lucius
254 to 257 Stephan 1
257 to 258 Sixtus or Xystus 2
259/260 to 267/268 Dionysus
268/269 to 273/274 Felix 1
274/275 to 282/283 Eutychianus
282/283 to 295/296 Cajus
295/296 to 304 Marcellinus
307 to 308 Marcellus 1
308/309/310 Eusebius

Greek Philosophy Christian Church Fathers

Roman Catholics

Christian Roma by Roman Christians


Roman Catholic Church State Chronicle

Babylonia Roman Catholics

Christianisation of the Gentiles by Gentilisation of the Christians

easter feast
holy sunday
valentine’s day
holy name days

Roma Kings and Cesars

Daughter States Foundations
1 Second Rome Byzantia Greek Revival or Roma state
Germania states
2Italia state
3?Arabia Islamic state
Norman states
Frank state
Carolus Magnus new cesar
4 Turkey
5 Iberia Latina
1648? Netherlands
6 Britannia
7 Russia
8 Anerica 1793?
French Empire
Autria Empire
1830 Belgium
9 Europe Revival
10 Aria Revival
11 Eighth dragon head Global Babylonia Revival
League of Nations
United Nations
# United Nations Members
193 + 2?

1. Afghanistan
2. Albania
3. Algeria
4. Andorra
5. Angola
6. Antigua and Barbuda
7. Argentina
8. Armenia
9. Australia
10. Austria
11. Azerbaijan
12. The Bahamas
13. Bahrain
14. Bangladesh
15. Barbados
16. Belarus
17. Belgium
18. Belize
19. Benin
20. Bhutan
21. Bolivia
22. Bosnia and Herzegovina
23. Botswana
24. Brazil
25. Brunei
26. Bulgaria
27. Burkina Faso
28. Burundi
29. Cabo Verde
30. Cambodia
31. Cameroon
32. Canada
33. Central African Republic
34. Chile
35. China
36. Colombia
37. Comoros
38. Congo
39. Costa Rica
40. Ivory Coast
41. Croatia
42. Cuba
43. Cyprus
44. Czech Republic
45. North Korea
46. Democratic Republic of the Congo
47. Denmark
48. Djibouti
49. Dominica
50. Dominicanr Republic
51. Ecuador
52. Egypt
53. El Salvador
54. Equatorial Guinea
55. Eritrea
56. Estonia
57. Eswatini
58. Ethiopia
59. Fiji
60. Finland
61. France
62. Gabon
63. Gambia
64. Georgia
65. Germany
66. Ghana
67. Greece
68. Grenada
69. Guatemala
70. Guinea
71. Guinea-Bissau
72. Guyana
73. Haiti
74. Honduras
75. Hungary
76. Iceland
77. India
78. Indonesia
79. Iran
80. Irak
81. Ireland
82. Israel
83. Italy
84. Jamaica
86. Japan
87. Jordan
88. Kazakhstan
89. Kenya
90. Kiribati
91. Kuwait
92. Kyrgyzstan
93. Laos
94. Latvia
95. Lebanon
96. Lesotho
97. Liberia
98. Libya
99. Liechtenstein
100. Lithuania
101. Luxembourg
102. Madagascar
103. Malawi
104. Malaysia
105. Maldives
106. Mali
107. Marshall Islands
108. Malta
109. Mauritania
110. Mauritius
111. Mexico
112. Federated States of Micronesia
113. Monaco
114. Mongolia
115. Montenegro
116. Morocco
117. Mozambique
118. Myanmar
119. Namibia
120. Nauru
121. Nepal
122. Kingdom of the Netherlands|Netherlands
123. New Zealand
124. Nicaragua
125. Niger
126. Nigeria
127. North Macedonia
128. Norway
129. Oman
130. Pakistan
131. Palau
132. Panama
133. Papua New Guinea
134. Paraguay
135. Peru
136. Philippines
137. Poland
138. Portugal
139. Qatar
140. South Korea|Republic of Korea
141. Moldova|Republic of Moldova
142. Romania
143. Russia|Russian Federation
144. Rwanda
145. Saint Kitts and Nevis
146. Saint Lucia
147. Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
148. Samoa
149. San Marino
150. São Tomé and Príncipe
151. Saudi Arabia
152. Senegal
153. Serbia
154. Seychelles
155. Sierra Leone
156. Singapore
157. Slovakia
158. Slovenia
159. Solomon Islands
160. Somalia
161. South Africa
162. South Sudan
163. Spain
164. Sri Lanka
165. Sudan
166. Suriname
167. Sweden
168. Switzerland
169. Syria|Syrian Arab Republic
170. Tajikistan
171. Thailand
172. East Timor
173. Togo
174. Tonga
175. Trinidad and Tobago
176. Tunisia
177. Turkey
178. Turkmenistan
179. Tuvalu
180. Uganda
181. Ukraine
182. United Arab Emirates
183. United Kingdom|United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
184. Vatican
185. Tanzania|United Republic of Tanzania
186. United States|United States of America
187. Uruguay
188. Uzbekistan
189. Vanuatu
190. Venezuela|Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela
191. Viet Nam
192. Yemen
193. Zambia
194. Zimbabwe

Popes, Cardinals and Nunzios
first pope

Reformers, Eremites, Monks, Nuns, Orders and Monasteries

Basilica, Cathedrals, Dioceses, Residences and Regencies
Rottenburg Stuttgart

Vaticana Babylonia Roma Catholics

foundation of the Vaticana state?

“Pope States”

The Papal States
Italian: Stato Pontificio,

officially the State of the Church (Italian: Stato della Chiesa,

Latin: Status Ecclesiasticus;

also Dicio Pontificia),

were a series of territories in the Italian Peninsula under the direct sovereign rule of the pope from the 8th century until 1870.

They were among the major states of Italy from roughly the 8th century until the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia unified the Italian Peninsula by conquest in a campaign virtually concluded in 1861 and definitively in 1870.

State of the Church
Stato Pontificio
Stato della Chiesa
Status Ecclesiasticus

Interregna (1798–1799, 1809–1814 and 1849)

Flag (1825–1870)
Coat of arms of the Papal States
(15th–19th cent.)

Coat of arms of the Papal State
(sede vacante)

• Marcia trionfale (1857–1870)[1]
• (Italian)
• “Great Triumphal March”

The Papal States in 1815 after the Napoleonic Wars

Map of the Papal States (green) in 1789 before the French seized papal lands in France, including its exclaves of Benevento and Pontecorvo in Southern Italy, and the Comtat Venaissin and Avignon in Southern France.


Common languages
Latin, Italian, Occitan

Roman Catholicism

Unitary Christian theocratic absolute elective monarchy
• 754–757 (first)
Stephen II

• 1846–1870 (last)
Pius IX

Cardinal Secretary of State
• 1551–1555 (first)
Girolamo Dandini

• 1848–1870 (last)
Giacomo Antonelli

Prime Minister

• 1847–1848 (first)
Gabriele Ferretti

• 1848–1849 (last)
C. E. Muzzarelli


• Establishment

• Codification

• Treaty of Venice (independence from the Holy Roman Empire)

• 1st disestablishment
February 18, 1798

• Schönbrunn Palace Declarations
May 17, 1809

• 2nd disestablishment
September 20, 1870

• Vatican City
February 11, 1929


• 1853[2]

• Papal States scudo (until 1866)
• Papal lira (1866–1870)

Preceded by



Succeeded by













Today part of
• Italy
• France
• Vatican City

During the Renaissance, the papal territory expanded greatly and the pope became one of Italy’s most important secular rulers as well as the head of the Church.

At their zenith, the Papal States covered most of the modern Italian regions of Lazio (which includes Rome), Marche, Umbria and Romagna, and portions of Emilia.

These holdings were considered to be a manifestation of the temporal power of the pope, as opposed to his ecclesiastical primacy.

However, by 1861, much of the Papal States’ territory had been conquered by the Kingdom of Italy.

Only Lazio, including Rome, remained under the pope’s temporal control.

In 1870, the pope lost Lazio and Rome and had no physical territory at all, except the Basilica of St Peter and the papal residence and related buildings around the Vatican quarter of Rome, which the new Italian state did not occupy militarily, despite annexation of Lazio.

In 1929 the Italian Fascist leader Benito Mussolini, the head of the Italian government, ended the “Prisoner in the Vatican” problem involving a unified Italy and the Holy See by negotiating the Lateran Treaty, signed by the two parties.

This treaty recognized the sovereignty of the Holy See over a newly created international territorial entity, a city state within Rome limited to a token territory which became the Vatican City.


The Papal States were also known as the Papal State (although the plural is usually preferred, the singular is equally correct as the polity was more than a mere personal union).

The territories were also referred to variously as
the State(s) of the Church,
the Pontifical States,
the Ecclesiastical States,
or the Roman States

Italian: Stato Pontificio,
also Stato della Chiesa,
Stati della Chiesa,
Stati Pontifici,
and Stato Ecclesiastico;

Latin: Status Pontificius,
also Dicio Pontificia “papal rule”).

To some extent the name used varied with the preferences and habits of the European languages in which it was expressed.


Further information: History of Rome and History of the Papacy

100 to 400

Main articles: Duchy of Rome and Patrimonium Sancti Petri

For its first 300 years, within the Roman Empire the Church was persecuted and unrecognized, unable to hold or transfer property.

Early congregations met in rooms set aside for that purpose in the homes of well-to-do individuals, and a number of early churches, known as titular churches and located on the outskirts of ancient Rome, were held as property by individuals, rather than by the Church itself.

Nonetheless, the properties held nominally or actually by individual members of the Roman churches would usually be considered as a common patrimony handed over successively to the legitimate “heir” of that property, often its senior deacons, who were, in turn, assistants to the local bishop.

This common patrimony attached to the churches at Rome and thus, under its ruling bishop, became quite considerable, including as it did not only houses etc. in Rome or nearby but landed estates, such as latifundias, whole or in part, across Italy and beyond.

This system began to change during the reign of the Emperor Constantine I, who made Christianity legal within the Roman Empire, and restored to it any properties that had been confiscated; in the larger cities of the empire this would have been quite considerable, and the Roman patrimony not least among them.

The Lateran Palace was the first significant new donation to the Church, most probably a gift from Constantine himself.

Other donations followed, primarily in mainland Italy but also in the provinces of the Roman Empire.

However, the Church held all of these lands as a private landowner, not as a sovereign entity.

Following the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the papacy found itself increasingly placed in a precarious and vulnerable position.

As central Roman authority disintegrated throughout the late 5th century, control over the Italian peninsula repeatedly changed hands, falling under Arian suzerainty during the reign of Odoacer and, later, the Ostrogoths.

The Church organization in Italy, with the pope at its head, submitted of necessity to their sovereign authority while asserting its spiritual primacy over the whole Church.

The seeds of the Papal States as a sovereign political entity were planted in the 6th century.

Beginning in 535, the Eastern Roman Empire – referred to by most historians as the Byzantine Empire to distinguish the Greek-speaking and religiously Orthodox polity based in Constantinople from the Latin-speaking, Catholic Empire ruled from Rome – under Emperor Justinian I, launched a reconquest of Italy which took several decades and devastated Italy’s political and economic structures.

Then in 568 the Lombards entered the peninsula from the north, establishing an Italian kingdom, and over the next two centuries they would conquer most of the Italian territory regained by Byzantium.

From 600
By the 7th century, Byzantine authority was largely limited to a diagonal band running roughly from Ravenna, where the emperor’s representative, or Exarch, was located, to Rome and south to Naples, plus coastal exclaves.

North of Naples, the band of Byzantine control contracted and the borders of the “Rome-Ravenna corridor” were extremely narrow.

With effective Byzantine power weighted at the northeast end of this territory, the pope, as the largest landowner and most prestigious figure in Italy, began by default to take on much of the ruling authority that the Byzantines were unable to exercise in the areas surrounding the city of Rome.[citation needed]

While the popes legally remained “Roman subjects”, under Byzantine authority, in practice the Duchy of Rome, an area roughly equivalent to modern-day Latium, became an independent state ruled by the pope.

The Church’s independence, aided by popular support for the papacy in Italy, enabled various popes to defy the will of the Byzantine emperor: Pope Gregory II even excommunicated Emperor Leo III during the Iconoclastic Controversy.

Nevertheless, the pope and the exarch still worked together to check the rising power of the Lombards in Italy.

As Byzantine power weakened, though, the papacy assumed an ever-larger role in protecting Rome from the Lombards, but lacking direct control over sizable military assets, the Pope relied mainly on diplomacy to achieve as much.

In practice, these papal efforts served to focus Lombard aggrandizement on the exarch and Ravenna.

728, Donation if Sutri by who
A climactic moment in the founding of the Papal States was the agreement over boundaries embodied in the Lombard King Liutprand’s Donation of Sutri (728) to Pope Gregory II.

Donation of Pepin

Main article: Donation of Pepin

When the Exarchate of Ravenna finally fell to the Lombards in 751, the Duchy of Rome was completely cut off from the Byzantine Empire, of which it was theoretically still a part.

The popes renewed earlier attempts to secure the support of the Franks.

In 751, Pope Zachary had Pepin the Short crowned king in place of the powerless Merovingian figurehead king Childeric III.

Zachary’s successor, Pope Stephen II, later granted Pepin the title Patrician of the Romans.

754, 756
Pepin led a Frankish army into Italy in 754 and 756.

Pepin defeated the Lombards – taking control of northern Italy – and made a gift (called the Donation of Pepin) of the properties formerly constituting the Exarchate of Ravenna to the pope.

In 781, Charlemagne codified the regions over which the pope would be temporal sovereign: the Duchy of Rome was key, but the territory was expanded to include Ravenna, the Duchy of the Pentapolis, parts of the Duchy of Benevento, Tuscany, Corsica, Lombardy, and a number of Italian cities.

800 to when, New Roman Emperor Carolus magnus
The cooperation between the papacy and the Carolingian dynasty climaxed in 800, when Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne as ‘Emperor of the Romans’.

Relationship with the Holy Roman Empire

See also:

Kingdom of Italy

(Holy Roman Empire)

The precise nature of the relationship between the popes and emperors – and between the Papal States and the Empire – is disputed.

It was unclear whether the Papal States were a separate realm with the pope as their sovereign ruler, merely a part of the Frankish Empire over which the popes had administrative control,

as suggested in the late-9th-century treatise Libellus de imperatoria potestate in urbe Roma,

or whether the Holy Roman Emperors were vicars of the pope (as a sort of Archemperor) ruling Christendom, with the pope directly responsible only for the environs of Rome and spiritual duties.

801 to 900
Events in the 9th century postponed the conflict.

The Holy Roman Empire in its Frankish form collapsed as it was subdivided among Charlemagne’s grandchildren.

Imperial power in Italy waned and the papacy’s prestige declined.

901 to when
This led to a rise in the power of the local Roman nobility, and the control of the Papal States during the early 10th century by a powerful and corrupt aristocratic family, the Theophylacti.

This period was later dubbed the Saeculum obscurum (“dark age”), and sometimes as the “rule by harlots”.

In practice, the popes were unable to exercise effective sovereignty over the extensive and mountainous territories of the Papal States, and the region preserved its old system of government, with many small countships and marquisates, each centred upon a fortified rocca.

about 950
Over several campaigns in the mid-10th century, the German ruler Otto I conquered northern Italy; Pope John XII crowned him emperor (the first so crowned in more than forty years) and the two of them ratified the Diploma Ottonianum, by which the emperor became the guarantor of the independence of the Papal States.

950 to 1150
Yet over the next two centuries, popes and emperors squabbled over a variety of issues, and the German rulers routinely treated the Papal States as part of their realms on those occasions when they projected power into Italy.

As the Gregorian Reform worked to free the administration of the church from imperial interference, the independence of the Papal States increased in importance.

After the extinction of the Hohenstaufen dynasty, the German emperors rarely interfered in Italian affairs.

In response to the struggle between the Guelphs and Ghibellines, the Treaty of Venice made official the independence of Papal States from the Holy Roman Empire in 1177.

about 1300
By 1300, the Papal States, along with the rest of the Italian principalities, were effectively independent.

Avignon Papacy

Main article: Avignon Papacy

<img alt=”” src=”//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/16/Central_States_of_the_Church_c_1430.png/170px-Central_States_of_the_Church_c_1430.png” decoding=”async” width=”170″ height=”278″ class=”thumbimage” data-file-width=”1900″ data-file-height=”3106″> 

The domain of the Papal States c. 1430

1305 to 1378, Avignon
From 1305 to 1378, the popes lived in the papal enclave of Avignon, surrounded by Provence and under the influence of the French kings.

This period was known as the “Avignonese” or “Babylonian Captivity”.

about 1370
During this period the city of Avignon itself was added to the Papal States; it remained a papal possession for some 400 years even after the popes returned to Rome, until it was seized and incorporated into the French state during the French Revolution.

During this Avignon Papacy, local despots took advantage of the absence of the popes to establish themselves in nominally papal cities: the Pepoli in Bologna, the Ordelaffi in Forlì, the Manfredi in Faenza, and the Malatesta in Rimini all gave nominal acknowledgement to their papal overlords and were declared vicars of the Church.

In Ferrara, the death of Azzo VIII d’Este without legitimate heirs (1308) encouraged Pope Clement V to bring Ferrara under his direct rule: however,

1308 to 1317
it was governed by his appointed vicar, King Robert of Naples, for only nine years before the citizens recalled the Este from exile (1317);

interdiction and excommunications were in vain: in 1332 John XXII was obliged to name three Este brothers as his vicars in Ferrara.

In Rome itself the Orsini and the Colonna struggled for supremacy, dividing the city’s rioni between them.

1347 to 1354
The resulting aristocratic anarchy in the city provided the setting for the fantastic dreams of universal democracy of Cola di Rienzo, who was acclaimed Tribune of the People in 1347, and met a violent death in early October 1354 as he was assassinated by supporters of the Colonna family.

To many, rather than an ancient Roman tribune reborn, he had become just another tyrant using the rhetoric of Roman renewal and rebirth to mask his grab for power.

As Prof. Guido Ruggiero states, “even with the support of Petrarch, his return to first times and the rebirth of ancient Rome was one that would not prevail.”

The Rienzo episode engendered renewed attempts from the absentee papacy to re-establish order in the dissolving Papal States, resulting in the military progress of Cardinal Albornoz, who was appointed papal legate, and his condottieri heading a small mercenary army.

Having received the support of the archbishop of Milan and Giovanni Visconti,
he defeated Giovanni di Vico, lord of Viterbo,
moving against Galeotto Malatesta of Rimini
and the Ordelaffi of Forlì,
the Montefeltro of Urbino
and the da Polenta of Ravenna, and against the cities of Senigallia
and Ancona.

The last holdouts against full papal control
were Giovanni Manfredi of Faenza
and Francesco II Ordelaffi of Forlì.

Albornoz, at the point of being recalled, in a meeting with all the Papal vicars on 29 April 1357, promulgated the Constitutiones Sanctæ Matris Ecclesiæ, which replaced the mosaic of local law and accumulated traditional ‘liberties’ with a uniform code of civil law.

when to 1816
These Constitutiones Egidiane mark a watershed in the legal history of the Papal States; they remained in effect until 1816.

when to 1370
Pope Urban V

ventured a return to Italy in 1367 that proved premature;

he returned to Avignon in 1370 just before his death.

<img alt=”” src=”//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e4/Quirinale_palazzo_e_obelisco_con_dioscuri_Roma.jpg/220px-Quirinale_palazzo_e_obelisco_con_dioscuri_Roma.jpg” decoding=”async” width=”220″ height=”155″ class=”thumbimage” data-file-width=”6965″ data-file-height=”4912″> 

The Quirinal Palace, papal residence and home to the civil offices of the Papal States from the Renaissance until their annexation

when to when

During the Renaissance, the papal territory expanded greatly,

when to when
notably under the popes Alexander VI

when to when
and Julius II.

The pope became one of Italy’s most important secular rulers as well as the head of the Church, signing treaties with other sovereigns and fighting wars.

In practice, though, most of the Papal States was still only nominally controlled by the pope, and much of the territory was ruled by minor princes.

1500s when
Control was always contested; indeed it took until the 16th century for the pope to have any genuine control over all his territories.

Papal responsibilities were often (as in the early 16th century) in conflict.

The Papal States were involved in at least three wars in the first two decades.

Julius II, the “Warrior Pope”, fought on their behalf.


The Reformation began in 1517.

In 1527, before the Holy Roman Empire fought the Protestants, troops loyal to Emperor Charles V brutally sacked Rome and imprisoned Pope Clement VII, as a side effect of battles over the Papal States.

Thus Clement VII was forced to give up Parma, Modena, and several smaller territories.

A generation later the armies of

King Philip II of Spain defeated

those of Pope Paul IV over the same issues.

This period saw a gradual revival of the pope’s temporal power in the Papal States.

Throughout the 16th century virtually independent fiefs such as Rimini (a possession of the Malatesta family) were brought back under Papal control.

In 1512 the state of the church annexed Parma and Piacenza,

which in 1545 became an independent ducate under an illegitimate son of Pope Paul III.

This process culminated

in the reclaiming of the Duchy of Ferrara in 1598,

and the Duchy of Urbino in 1631.

At its greatest extent, in the 18th century, the Papal States included most of central Italy –
and the Legations of
and Bologna
extending north into the Romagna.

It also included

the small enclaves of Benevento

and Pontecorvo in southern Italy

and the larger Comtat Venaissin around Avignon in southern France.

Napoleonic era

<img alt=”” src=”//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/8a/Italy_1796.svg/220px-Italy_1796.svg.png” decoding=”async” width=”220″ height=”264″ class=”thumbimage” data-file-width=”3500″ data-file-height=”4200″> 
Map of the Italian Peninsula in 1796, showing the Papal States before the Napoleonic wars changed the face of the peninsula.

1789 to when
The French Revolution affected the temporal territories of the Papacy as well as the Roman Church in general.

In 1791 an election in Comtat Venaissin and Avignon was followed by occupation by Revolutionary France.

Later, with the French invasion of Italy in 1796, the Legations, the Papal States’ northern territories, were seized and became part of the Cisalpine Republic.

Two years later, French forces invaded the remaining area of the Papal States and General Louis-Alexandre Berthier declared a Roman Republic (February 1798).

when to 1799
Pope Pius VI fled to Siena, and died in exile in Valence (France) in 1799.

The French Consulate restored the Papal States in June 1800

and the newly elected Pope Pius VII took up residency in Rome,

but the French Empire under Napoleon invaded in 1808,

and this time on 17 May 1809 the remainder of the States of the Church were annexed to France, forming the départements of Tibre and Trasimène.

Following the fall of the Napoleonic system in 1814, the Congress of Vienna officially restored the Italian territories of the Papal States (but not the Comtat Venaissin or Avignon) to Vatican control.

From 1814 until the death

when to 1846
of Pope Gregory XVI in 1846, the popes followed a reactionary policy in the Papal States.

For instance, the city of Rome maintained the last Jewish ghetto in Western Europe.

1846 to 1878
There were hopes[by whom?] that this would change when Pope Pius IX (in office 1846–1878) succeeded Gregory XVI and began to introduce liberal reforms.

Italian unification

Main articles:

Papal States under Pope Pius IX

and Administrative subdivisions of the Papal States from 1816 to 1871

<img alt=”” src=”//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/2d/Stato_Pontificio_1818.jpg/170px-Stato_Pontificio_1818.jpg” decoding=”async” width=”170″ height=”227″ class=”thumbimage” data-file-width=”3294″ data-file-height=”4394″> 
Bond of the Papal States, issued 9 December 1818.

1814 to 1815
Italian nationalism had been stoked during the Napoleonic period but dashed by the settlement of the Congress of Vienna (1814–15), which sought to restore the pre-Napoleonic conditions: most of northern Italy was under the rule of junior branches of the Habsburgs and the Bourbons.

The Papal States in central Italy and the Bourbon Kingdom of the Two Sicilies in the south were both restored.

Popular opposition to the reconstituted and corrupt clerical government led to numerous revolts, which were suppressed by the intervention of the Austrian army.

The nationalist and liberal revolutions of 1848 affected much of Europe.

In February 1849 a Roman Republic was declared,

and the hitherto liberally-inclined Pope Pius IX had to flee the city.

The revolution was suppressed with French help in 1849 and Pius IX switched to a conservative line of government.

Until his return to Rome in 1850, the Papal States were governed by a group of cardinals known as the Red Triumvirate.

As a result of the Austro-Sardinian War of 1859, Sardinia-Piedmont annexed Lombardy, while Giuseppe Garibaldi overthrew the Bourbon monarchy in the south.

Afraid that Garibaldi would set up a republican government, the Piedmont government petitioned French Emperor Napoleon III for permission to send troops through the Papal States to gain control of the south.

This was granted on the condition that Rome be left undisturbed.

In 1860, with much of the region already in rebellion against Papal rule, Sardinia-Piedmont conquered the eastern two-thirds of the Papal States and cemented its hold on the south.

1860 November
Bologna, Ferrara, Umbria, the Marches, Benevento and Pontecorvo were all formally annexed by November of the same year.

While considerably reduced, the Papal States nevertheless still covered the Latium and large areas northwest of Rome.

<img alt=”” src=”//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/39/BrecciaPortaPia.jpg/220px-BrecciaPortaPia.jpg” decoding=”async” width=”220″ height=”136″ class=”thumbimage” data-file-width=”6048″ data-file-height=”3728″> 

The Breach of Porta Pia, on the right, in 1870.

A unified Kingdom of Italy was declared and in March 1861 the first Italian parliament, which met in Turin, the old capital of Piedmont, declared Rome the capital of the new Kingdom.

However, the Italian government could not take possession of the city because a French garrison in Rome protected Pope Pius IX.

The opportunity for the Kingdom of Italy to eliminate the Papal States came in 1870; the outbreak of the Franco-Prussian War in July prompted Napoleon III to recall his garrison from Rome and the collapse of the Second French Empire at the Battle of Sedan deprived Rome of its French protector.

King Victor Emmanuel II at first aimed at a peaceful conquest of the city and proposed sending troops into Rome, under the guise of offering protection to the pope.

When the pope refused, Italy declared war on 10 September 1870, and the Italian Army, commanded by General Raffaele Cadorna, crossed the frontier of the papal territory on September 11 and advanced slowly toward Rome.

The Italian Army reached the Aurelian Walls on September 19 and placed Rome under a state of siege.

Although the pope’s tiny army was incapable of defending the city, Pius IX ordered it to put up more than a token resistance to emphasize that Italy was acquiring Rome by force and not consent.

This incidentally served the purposes of the Italian State and gave rise to the myth of the Breach of Porta Pia, in reality a tame affair involving a cannonade at close range that demolished a 1600-year-old wall in poor repair.

Pope Pius IX ordered the commander of the papal forces to limit the defense of the city in order to avoid bloodshed.

The city was captured on 20 September 1870. Rome and what was left of the Papal States was annexed to the Kingdom of Italy as a result of a plebiscite the following October.

This marked the definite end of the Papal States.

Despite the fact that the traditionally Catholic powers did not come to the pope’s aid, the papacy rejected the 1871 “Law of Guarantees” and any substantial accommodation with the Italian Kingdom, especially any proposal which required the pope to become an Italian subject.

Instead the papacy confined itself (see Prisoner in the Vatican) to the Apostolic Palace and adjacent buildings in the loop of the ancient fortifications known as the Leonine City, on Vatican Hill.

From there it maintained a number of features pertaining to sovereignty, such as diplomatic relations, since in canon law these were inherent in the papacy.

In the 1920s, the papacy – then under Pius XI – renounced the bulk of the Papal States.

1929 February 11
The Lateran Treaty with Italy then ruled by the National Fascist Party under Benito Mussolini was signed on 11 February 1929, creating the State of the Vatican City, forming the sovereign territory of the Holy See, which was also indemnified to some degree for loss of territory.

Regional governors

<img alt=”” src=”//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f5/I_fratelli_de_charette_de_la_contrie_detti_i_moschettieri_del_papa.jpg/220px-I_fratelli_de_charette_de_la_contrie_detti_i_moschettieri_del_papa.jpg” decoding=”async” width=”220″ height=”227″ class=”thumbimage” data-file-width=”398″ data-file-height=”410″>

Papal Zouaves pose in 1869.

As the plural name Papal States indicates, the various regional components retained their identity under papal rule.

The pope was represented in each province by a governor, who bore one of a number of titles.

These included “papal legate”, as in the former principality of Benevento, or at Bologna, in Romagna, and the March of Ancona; and “papal delegate”, as in the former duchy of Pontecorvo and in the Campagne and Maritime Province.

Other titles like “Papal Vicar”, “Vicar General”, and also several titles of nobility, such as “count” or even “prince” were used.

However, throughout the history of the Papal States many warlords and even bandit chieftains controlled cities and small duchies without having received any title from the Pope of the day.

Papal military

Historically the Papal States maintained military forces composed of volunteers and mercenaries, including Catholic military orders.

Between 1860 and 1870 the Papal Army (Esercito Pontificio in Italian) comprised two regiments of locally recruited Italian infantry, two Swiss regiments and a battalion of Irish volunteers, plus artillery and dragoons.

In 1861 an international Catholic volunteer corps, called Papal Zouaves after a kind of French colonial native Algerian infantry, and imitating their uniform type, was created.

Predominantly made up of Dutch, French and Belgian volunteers, this corps saw service against Garibaldi’s Redshirts, Italian patriots, and finally the forces of the newly united Italy.

The Papal Army was disbanded in 1870, leaving only the Palatine Guard, which was itself disbanded on 14 September 1970 by Pope Paul VI; the Noble Guard, which also disbanded in 1970; and the Swiss Guard, which continues to serve both as a ceremonial unit at the Vatican and as the pope’s protective force.

A small Papal Navy was also maintained, based at Civitavecchia on the west coast and Ancona on the east.

With the fall of the Papal States in 1870 the last ships of the flotilla were sailed to France, where they were sold on the death of Pius IX.

See also

• Captain General of the Church
• Donation of Constantine
• History of Rome
• Index of Vatican City-related articles
• Italian United Provinces
• Italian unification
• Roman Question
• War of the Eight Saints



1. ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20100313145622/http://www.vaticanstate.va/IT/Stato_e_Governo/NoteGenerali/Inno.htm
2. ^ Statistica della popolazione dello Stato pontificio dell’anno 1853 (PDF). Ministero del commercio e lavori pubblici. 1857. p. XXII. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 March 2018. Retrieved 1 March 2018.
3. ^ Frederik de Wit, “Status Ecclesiasticus et Magnus Ducatus Thoscanae” (1700)
4. ^ Mitchell, S.A. (1840). Mitchell’s geographical reader. Thomas, Cowperthwait & Co. p. 368.
5. ^ a b c Schnürer, Gustav. “States of the Church.” Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 14. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1912. 16 July 2014
6. ^ Brent, Allen (2009-09-01). A Political History of Early Christianity. A&C Black. p. 243. ISBN 9780567606051.
7. ^ “Ostrogoths”. Catholic Online. Retrieved December 9, 2020.
8. ^ Treadgold 1997, p. 378.
9. ^ McEvedy, Colin (1961). The Penguin Atlas of Medieval History. Penguin Books. p. 32. ISBN 9780140708226. “… separated from their theoretical overlord in Pavia by the continuing Imperial control of the Rome-Ravenna corridor.”
10. ^ Freeman, Charles (2014). Egypt, Greece, and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean. OUP Oxford. p. 661. ISBN 978-0199651924. “The empire retained control only of Rome, Ravenna, a fragile corridor between them, …”
11. ^ Richards, Jeffrey (2014). The Popes and the Papacy in the Early Middle Ages: 476-752. Routledge. p. 230. ISBN 978-1317678175. “In 749 Ratchis embarked on a bid to capture Perusia, the key to the Rome-Ravenna land corridor”
12. ^ Kleinhenz 2004, p. 1060.
13. ^ “St. Gregory II – Saints & Angels”. Catholic Online. Retrieved December 9, 2020.
14. ^ “Pope St. Gregory II”. Catholic Online. Retrieved December 9, 2020.
15. ^ “Sutri”. From Civitavecchia to Civita Castellana. Retrieved 27 August 2012.
16. ^ Kleinhenz 2004, p. 324.
17. ^ Émile Amann and Auguste Dumas, L’église au pouvoir des laïques, in Auguste Fliche and Victor Martin, eds. Histoire de l’Église depuis l’origine jusqu’au nos jours, vol. 7 (Paris 1940, 1948)
18. ^ Tucker 2009, p. 332.
19. ^ Spielvogel 2013, pp. 245-246.
20. ^ Elm & Mixson 2015, p. 154.
21. ^ Watanabe 2013, p. 241.
22. ^ Kleinhenz 2004, pp. 220, 982.
23. ^ Noble; et al. (2013). Cengage Advantage Books: Western Civilization: Beyond Boundaries (7 ed.). Cengage Learning. p. 304. ISBN 978-1285661537. “The Babylonian Captivity, 1309–1377”
24. ^ Butt, John J. (2006). The Greenwood Dictionary of World History. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 36. ISBN 978-0313327650. “Term (coined by Petrarch) for the papal residence in Avignon (1309–1377), in reference to the Babylonian Captivity (…)”
25. ^ Menache 2003, p. 142.
26. ^ Waley 1966, p. 62.
27. ^ Kleinhenz 2004, p. 802.
28. ^ Ruggiero 2014, p. 225.
29. ^ a b c Ruggiero 2014, p. 227.
30. ^ Watanabe 2013, p. 19.
31. ^ Ganse, Alexander. “History of the Papal States”. World History at KDMLA. Korean Minjok Leadership Academy. Retrieved 7 March 2013.
32. ^ a b Durant, Will (1953). The Renaissance. Chapter XXI: The Political Collapse: 1494–1534.
33. ^ https://www.themaparchive.com/papal-states-in-the-16th-century.html
34. ^ Durant, Will (1953). The Renaissance. Chapter XXXIX: The popes and the Council: 1517–1565.
35. ^ Hanlon 2008, p. 134.
36. ^ Domenico 2002, p. 85.
37. ^ Gross 2004, p. 40.
38. ^ a b c d e f g h Hanson 2015, p. 252.
39. ^ Alex Witula: TITOLI di STATO, p. 245, ISBN 978-88-95848-12-9
40. ^ Roessler & Miklos 2003, p. 149.
41. ^ “Il ‘triumvirato rosso'”. Biblioteca Salaborsa (in Italian). Retrieved 29 May 2021.
42. ^ Fischer 2011, p. 136.
43. ^ Abulafia, David (2003). “The Mediterranean as a battleground”. The Mediterranean in History. Getty Publication. p. 268. ISBN 978-0892367252. “(…) under Giuseppe Garibaldi to overthrow the Neapolitan Bourbons. After defeating a Neapolitan force at Calatafirmi, Caribaldi captured Palermo after three days of street fighting.”
44. ^ “History of the Pontifical Swiss Guard”. Retrieved 30 August 2016.
45. ^ a b De Grand 2004, p. 89.
46. ^ Brandani, Massimo (1976). L’Esercito Pontificio da Castelfidardo a Porta Pia. Milan: Intergest. p. 6.
47. ^ Charles A. Coulombe, The Pope’s Legion: The Multinational Fighting Force that Defended the Vatican, Palgrave Macmillan, New York, 2008
48. ^ Levillain 2002, p. 1095.


• <img alt=”” src=”//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg/12px-Wikisource-logo.svg.png” decoding=”async” width=”12″ height=”13″ data-file-width=”410″ data-file-height=”430″>  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). “States of the Church”. Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
• Chambers, D.S. 2006. Popes, Cardinals & War: The Military Church in Renaissance and Early Modern Europe. I.B. Tauris. ISBN 1-84511-178-8. [sic]
• De Cesare, Raffaele (1909). The Last Days of Papal Rome. London: Archibald Constable & Co.
• De Grand, Alexander J. (2004). Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany: The “fascist” Style of Rule. Psychology Press. ISBN 978-0415336314.
• Domenico, Roy Palmer (2002). The Regions of Italy: A Reference Guide to History and Culture. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0313307331.
• Elm, Kaspar; Mixson, James D. (2015). Religious Life between Jerusalem, the Desert, and the World: Selected Essays by Kaspar Elm. BRILL. ISBN 978-9004307780.
• Fischer, Conan (2011). Europe between Democracy and Dictatorship: 1900 – 1945. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-1444351453.
• Gross, Hanns (2004). Rome in the Age of Enlightenment: The Post-Tridentine Syndrome and the Ancien Régime. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0521893787.
• Hanlon, Gregory (2008). The Twilight Of A Military Tradition: Italian Aristocrats And European Conflicts, 1560-1800. Routledge. ISBN 978-1135361433.
• Hanson, Paul R. (2015). Historical Dictionary of the French Revolution (2nd ed.). Rowman & Littlefield. p. 252. ISBN 978-0810878921. “Comtat Venaissin and Avignon were annexed by France.”
• Kleinhenz, Christopher (2004). Medieval Italy: An Encyclopedia. Routledge. ISBN 978-1135948801.
• Levillain, Philippe (2002). The Papacy: Gaius-Proxies. Psychology Press. ISBN 978-0415922302.
• Luther, Martin (1521). Passional Christi und Antichristi. Reprinted in W.H.T. Dau (1921). At the Tribunal of Caesar: Leaves from the Story of Luther’s Life. St. Louis: Concordia. (Google Books)
• Menache, Sophia (2003). Clement V. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. p. 142. ISBN 978-0521521987.
• Roessler, Shirley Elson; Miklos, Reny (2003). Europe 1715-1919: From Enlightenment to World War. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. ISBN 978-0742568792.
• Ruggiero, Guido (2014). The Renaissance in Italy: A Social and Cultural History of the Rinascimento. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1316123270.
• Spielvogel, Jackson J. (2013). Western Civilization: A Brief History (8th ed.). Cengage Learning. ISBN 978-1133606765.
• Treadgold, Warren T. (1997). A History of the Byzantine State and Society. Stanford University Press. ISBN 978-0804726306.
• Tucker, Spencer C. (2009). A Global Chronology of Conflict: From the Ancient World to the Modern Middle East [6 volumes]. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1851096725.
• Waley, Daniel Philip (1966). Rearder, Harry (ed.). “A Short History of Italy: From Classical Times to Present Day”. University Press. “1332 John XXII vicars.”
• Watanabe, Morimichi (2013). Izbicki, Thomas M.; Christianson, Gerald (eds.). Nicholas of Cusa – A Companion to his Life and his Times. Ashgate Publishing. ISBN 978-1409482-536.

External links

• Papal States Coinage
• WHKMLA Historical atlas: here the page offering numerous links to maps of/containing Italy

Witnesses and Inspiration

Papal states
Popes and Cesars
second Roma
third Roma
church state
Julius calendar
Gregor calendar
New and old Babylonia
Peter in Babylonia
Ancient Babylonia desertification
bishops of Rome
reformers, monasteries, nuns and monks
diplomacy and intelligence
enlighten ment
counter reformation
church schools
Maria mother of Jesus and Catholica?
Kriminal geschichte des Christen tums
Karl Heinz Deschner
Karl Heinz Deschner
Molech USA
Peter Bender
August Harnack?
Ellen White
Jehovah’s Witnesses
Edward Gibbons
Roma downfall

Martyrs, Inquisitions = Investigations
Relicts and Holies
Eunuchs and Castrates
Downfall of Babylonia City
Julian Calendar
First Christmas
First Corpus Christi Day
First Easter Celebration
First Pope
bible yoke Vulgata
Vaticana Foundation
State Foundations, Mother of States
Gregor Calendar Reform
Orthodox Schisma
Anglican Schisma
Lutheran Schisma
Catharsis Heresy
Hussite Heresy
Mennonite Heresy
Counter Reformation
Iberia Reconquista
Giordano Bruno
Galileo Galilei
Spain Foundation
Portugal Foundation
Switzerland Secession
Netherlands Foundation
empire Francaise
United States of America
Constantinople Downfall
Marco Polo
Saudi Arabia
Latina Independency with many more new states
Vienna congress with new states
Death Penalties
Law Suits and Processes
Hans Küng
Liberation Theology
Decolonisation with many more new states

Published by Uwe Schweitzer

Jehovah's Christ Michael's Zsion Paradise State Levite and Broader Israel1914 by Heart. "All Lives matter!" Justice and Psalm 87 Heritage. Egypt Populist and Babylonia Lambent. Sabaoth Final Victory Yearner.

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